Spongia: Philosophy Blog EUR

Op 10 april a.s. wordt SWIP.NL opgericht, een vakorganisatie ter behartiging van de belangen van vrouwelijke filosofen. SWIP.NL streeft ernaar onderlinge samenwerkingsmogelijkheden te vergroten, de zichtbaarheid van vrouwen als filosoof te verhogen, vrouwelijke filosofen allertijden te promoten en om te protesteren tegen discriminatie van vrouwen in de filosofie.

Ik vermoed dat het heel vaak niet gaat om een willens-en-wetens achterstellen van vrouwen, enkel en alleen omdat ze vrouw zijn. En ik vermoed ook dat lang niet iedereen die bevooroordeeld handelt t.o.v. vrouwelijke filosofen op een bewust niveau en op basis van weloverwegen redeneringen oprecht van mening is dat vrouwen slechtere filosofen zijn dan mannen.

Hoe komt het dan dat vrouwelijke filosofen in de praktijk achtergesteld worden? Een aannemelijke verklaring lijkt de impact van  implicit biases (IBs) – d.w.z. automatische associatie-processen gevoed door in de maatschappij rondzingende stereotypes en vooroordelen – op ons handelen. Eén van de sprekers op de oprichtingsbijenkomst van SWIP.NL is Jennifer Saul, hoogleraar verbonden aan Sheffield University, nauw betrokken bij de Britse SWIP, en directeur van het multidisciplinaire “Implicit Bias Project”. Voor degenen die nog niet bekend zijn met haar werk en alvast een voorproefje willen nemen: onderstaande link geeft een idee van haar denken over IBs en en hoe het zit met IBs t.a.v. vrouwen in de filosofie.

http://philosophypress.co.uk/?p=1079

Filosofe uit IJsland en de VS vergelijkt.

Chapter 9: The Basic Right to Justification: Toward a constructivist conception of human rights

In this chapter, Forst proposes a foundation and formulation of a constructive conception of human rights. He starts by ethnocentrism and imperialism objections raised to (Western) notion of human rights in order to underlie the normative core of these objections.  He argues that if the objections are based on the idea that the cultural integrity of a society must be maintained and for this externally coerced change needs to be avoided, there is still “an internal criterion for the justified claim to cultural integrity: the uncoerced acceptance of the culture by its members” (p. 207). Therefore, to claim cultural integrity and external respect of this integrity requires that there is internal cultural and moral coherence based on uncoerced support from the members of that culture.  If the moral legitimacy of a certain sociocultural structure is questioned by the members of this culture, the demand for human rights arises “from within” (p. 209). This demand springs up from people’s asking reasons for the justification of certain rules, laws and institutions, they ask for the most universal and basic claim of every human being: “the right to justification, the right to be respected as a moral person who is autonomous at least in the sense that he or she must not be treated in any manner for which adequate reasons cannot be provided” (p. 209). This right to justification is a fundamental, absolutely binding subjective claim that cannot be denied intersubjectively. It is “a) a moral right and b) the basic right: for by itself it is not a specific intersubjectively established and recognized human rights, but rather the basis of the justification of concrete rights” (p. 210). Lees de rest van dit artikel »

I post these comments on chapter 7 and 8 on behalf of Christian van der Veeke.

The goal of this chapter is to construe a model of deliberative democracy that should be regarded as an alternative to the liberal and communitarian conception of democracy.

Forst argues against the ‘standard liberal view’ that understands voting citizens as market participants, expressing their preferences and acting strategically in their own interest. He presents the liberal and communitarian models that understand democracy as political practice of argumentation and reason-giving among free and equal citizens. Only those norms, rules or decisions are legitimate that result from some for of reason-based agreement among citizens. But which model adequately conceptualizes democracy as ‘the rule of reason’?

Lees de rest van dit artikel »

Julian Reiss has started a blog on economic philosophy, which he named Irrational Fools The first post immediately attracted my attention – since (as you can see from the comments) Julian and I have been through a same argument with John Broome on the consequences of his account of personal duties related to climate change for questions of procreative rights/limits. Welcome to the blogosphere, Julian, and we are looking forward reading more from you there in the future.

Students taking my ‘Contemporary Theories of Justice’ course all know (some of) the work of Ronald Dworkin – who has developed one of the most influential egalitarian theories. So for them, and anyone else who has read Dworkin’s work in other areas, such as legal philosophy, social security reform, or the ethics of life and death, I’m passing on the news that he has died. Obituaries around on the web, such as on Crooked TimberThe GuardianFeminist PhilosophersLeiter Reportsand the further links on those sites.

In chapters 5 and 6 Forst applies his justificatory framework to the subjects of, respectively, political liberty and multicultural toleration.

Lees de rest van dit artikel »

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